Sunday, May 24, 2020
Many people experience what it is like to be isolated at some point in their lives. But when does one feel like an outcast? Being isolated can change oneÃ¢â¬â¢s entire outlook on life. Alienation can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"a powerful feeling of isolation and lonelinessÃ¢â¬ (Alienation 1). Different people react differently to alienation and some express it by becoming Ã¢â¬Å"withdrawn and lethargic [and] others may react with hostility and violenceÃ¢â¬ (Alienation 1). Many suffer from alienation for a variety of causes. Throughout life, one must learn to cope with alienation and many do. Through overcoming struggles, one learns how to become independent and self-reliant. Being an outcast comes with various struggles. An example of someone who feels like anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Throughout his life he tried to avoid anything that would connect him with his roots. When he was at Carnegie Hall he felt complete and he wanted that type of glamorous life. When he got a tast e of that wondrous world, he could not bear to go back to being an outcast. Sadly, Paul could not go back to dealing with the life he lived in the past. He took his life and he Ã¢â¬Å"dropped back into the immense design of thingsÃ¢â¬ (Cather 14). There are numerous struggles that come with being an outcast and often it seems there is no end to the pain they experience during this time. Contrary to what isolated people feel, there could be positive results. How does one escape the clutches of feeling alone and isolated? Although it might not feel like it at the time, there are options and ways to stop feeling like an outcast. Often times one feels like an outcast because they are unsatisfied with themselves or their own lives. It is a very destructive cycle and does damage to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem. When one feels lonely, it Ã¢â¬Å"can trigger voices that we are unloved or unlikeableÃ¢â¬ (Isolation and Loneliness 1). To reverse this cycle, one must try to feel accepted and loved. One way to do this is to go out in public. The key is to not isolate ourselves because Ã¢â¬Å"our brains do not respond positively to seclusionÃ¢â¬ (Isolation and Loneliness 1). There is a problem with going out to be with people in public for some people because they are shy. One way to deal with the shyness and isolation is toShow MoreRelatedThe Environment Makes the Person.1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmakes the person. Whether it is being on an is land or a mental asylum; any normal person can change. Between the stories of Lord of the Flies and I Only Came to Use the Phone uses a setting of isolation to mesh events to show how the main theme of dehumanization, by how the characters are coping with isolation in the environment. Whether it is facing the fact that there is no escape, then trying desperate ways to escape, and seeing the illusion of good become the reality of bad in the environment.Read MoreThe Theme Of Loneliness In The Ascent By Ron Rash859 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesby his parents. In the story, Jared escapes his miserable home life to a plane wreck he discovers while roaming the wilderness. Through the use of detached imagery and the emotional characterization of Jared as self-isolating, Rash argues that escaping too far from reality can be very harmful to the stability of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional being. The isolated and desolate imagery throughout effectively conveys JaredÃ¢â¬â¢s extreme detachment from his surroundings. When describing his homelife, Jared expressesRead MoreRefugee Blues Essay1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRefugee Blues W. H. AudenÃ¢â¬â¢s poem of despair, misery, and isolation, Ã¢â¬Å"Refugee BluesÃ¢â¬ , describes the hardships faced by two German Jewish refugees attempting to escape HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Germany. Published in autumn, 1939, Auden is surrounded by the anti-Sematic hatred that is growing in Germany six months prior to the outbreak of World War II. Auden utilizes this environment and the experiences of German Jews to express the abuse of human rights and the sentiments of refugees. For the near two thousandRead MoreJournal Responses on the Adventures, of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgoing to school but he has the important role of teaching the reader the importance of social injustices. When a new judge in town grants HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Pap, custody of him, Huck is taken to PapÃ¢â¬â¢s cabin and kept in isolation. It is during this time that Huck associates his isolation with slavery and comes to recognize slavery as an oppressively inhuman institution. Pap shows social injustice because he does not want Huck to go to school. Pap always wants to be higher up and better than Huck soRead MoreIsolation in Ã¢â¬Å"a Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ 1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ we get EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts form dialogue and her actions from the narration of the townspeople. A comparison between the protagonist in Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ enables readers to interpret the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation from their community and state of mind. In each section of Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , the narrator goes back and forth in time telling stories of Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a controlling man who ran off all prospect men of EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s (FaulknerRead MoreHow Does Isolation Play a Big Role in the Novel Frankenstein Essay695 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIsolation is the seperation from others whether it is emotionally or physically. Throughout Frankenstein this became a issue where they tried to destroy each other. Frankenstein creation is the most obvious victim who suffers alienation, but Victor himself suffer isolation, yet the creature suffer from defection of society due to being rejected and not accepted by others. However, isolation led to Victor and the creatures self destruction. Victor brought Isolation upon himself, throughout his lifeRead MoreTheme Of Isolation In The Caretaker By Ghilip Larkin1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHarold Pinter and Philip Larkin present the theme of isolation in a variety of different ways throughout their works. In The Caretaker, Pinter explores the notion of isolation and how it impacts all three characters in a brutally raw way, exposing their vulnerabilities and exploring their most true identities in vastly different ways. Throughout Collected Poems, many of the works explore how the character in each poem escapes modern life by isolating themselves, both emotionally, such as in Ã¢â¬ËTalkingRead MoreTheme Of Isolation In Frankenstein1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIsolation in Frankenstein The consequences of isolation can be both physical and emotional. For the characters in Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein, isolation does both in varying degrees.Through VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s self-destructive path for knowledge and revenge, the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s descent from curiosity and benevolence to misery and revenge, and WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to the Arctic, Mary Shelley explores the theme of isolation in that whether it is intentional or not, isolation only leads to negative consequences. Read MoreCharlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Story, The Yellow Wallpaper, Isolating the Sick is not Medication591 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Isolating the sick is only necessary if the ailing is contagious. In Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,Ã¢â¬ the isolation of Jennie was the major foundation of her illness. If Jennie was surrounded by loved ones, she would feel their love and be encouraged to get stronger. By being isolated from family and friends Jennie slips into her abandoned, bleak thoughts. Her only way to express herself was through writing on Ã¢â¬Å"dead paperÃ¢â¬ in her journal. Those words alone should haveRead MoreToni Morrison s Beloved : Cycle Of Claim1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof slavery. The novel reveals that the memories of enslavement, particularly the denial of them, effect life even after slavery is abolished. The black community is unwilling to accept their past, causing them to lack self identities. Even after escaping a life of bondage, the characters are forever trapped in the external world of slavery. As Sethe says on page 95, Ã¢â¬Å"Freeing yourself was one thing; claiming ownership of that freed self was another.Ã¢â¬ The effects of slavery have inculcated the need
Monday, May 18, 2020
In The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, the reader gets a sense of what the expectations are of Dominican men and women. Junot DÃ az uses Oscar in contrast to the other male characters to present the expectations of the Dominican male. On the other hand, DÃ az presents the women in the text, especially Belicia, La Inca, Lola, and Jenni, as strong characters in their own rights, but the male characters, with the exception of Oscar, have a desire to display their masculinity to maintain power over these women. It would be unfair to say that the women bring the abuse unto themselves, but rather it is their culture that makes the abuse acceptable and almost to a certain extentÃ¢â¬âexpected. Oscar is the antithesis of his cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of manliness. In the beginning we meet an Oscar who is called Ã¢â¬Å"Porfirio RubirosaÃ¢â¬ (21). Everyone is proud of the boy because this is exactly what he needs to be to be a Dominican man. Men from Dominican Republic, and perhaps Spanish Caribbean men, are expected to take care of their family especially their mothers and sisters, yet they are also expected to be Ã¢â¬Å"playboysÃ¢â¬ who have multiple women. as the first line of the story communicates, Ã¢â¬Å"Our hero was not one of those Dominican cats everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s always going on aboutÃ¢â¬âhe wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t no home-run hitter or a fly-bachetero, not a playboy with a million hots on his jockÃ¢â¬ (21). Oscar is the type of man who women say they want; kind, sensitive, considerate, smart, and romantic. He truly want to find trueShow MoreRelatedJunot Diaz s Truly Does Tell The Brief Story Of The Wondrous Life Of Oscar De Leon1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJunot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s novel truly does tell the brief story of the wondrous life of Oscar de LÃ ©on, our Dominican-American protagonist, better known as Oscar Wao. Weighing in at 245 pounds, our hopeless romantic loves comic books, writes science-fiction in all of his spare time, and, as described by our homodiegetic narrator Yunior, is a Ã¢â¬Å"loser with a capital LÃ¢â¬ (Diaz 17). While the title might allude that this is a story solely about Oscar, Diaz also delves deep into the lives of those closest to him. ThisRead MoreColor Tone, Gradient, Race, And Ethnicity1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages and ethnicity. These characteristics unite and divide humans from all walks of life all around the world. While many countries and cultures throughout the world try to downplay the role of superficial conclusions based on perceived ethnicity, usually based on skin tone, it is difficult because for many cultures, skin tone and its implications are as much a part of reality as any other cultural moni ker. The Dominican Republic is one of these countries. Since colonial times, skin tone has played aRead MoreGender Roles And Inequality : The Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao Written By Junot Diaz1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhile returning home from school. To this day, nothing has stopped Yousafzai from continuing to speak out about the importance of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ education, despite the inequality that she and many other women and girls still must endure. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao written by Junot Diaz is an exemplary text that supports reader s understanding of gender roles that are faced daily in Middle Eastern countries. DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of gender inequality and gender roles helps inform oneÃ¢â¬â¢s understandingRead MoreContact Zone Essay1766 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCaroline Kelly Professor Ober First Year Writing 29 September 2014 The Contact Zone The Holocaust happened because two groups of people were grappling with each and one was stronger than the other. Wars typically occur because two cultures disagree and choose to settle it, and the strong culture prevails. African American and Caucasian people used to be exiled for getting married, because they were different. There are millions of different cultures in the world today and every day isRead MoreThe Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Juniot Diaz1577 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar WaoÃ¢â¬ by Juniot Diaz you start to notice a cultural gender role and how there is certain expectations of them. The novel is based on a young boy named Oscar Wao and the hardships that one event has caused to an entire family. Even though the novel is focused on Oscar the author always went back to his sister and his mother. The author described the women as Ã¢â¬Å"real, strong women, even though they were being filtered through a somewhat dist orted male pointRead MoreAnalysis Of The Brief Life Of Oscar Wao By Junot Diaz1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the novel, The Brief Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz, point of view plays a crucial role in narrating the life of the lonesome outsider, Oscar. The novel is narrated in first person, but Diaz chooses to disclose who the speaker is until later in the book. As the story progresses, there are clues that hint to the reader who the outside source narrating Oscars life is. Diaz uses Yunior to narrate a majority of the novel. This point of view lets the readers understand the Dominican culture throughRead MoreThe Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao : Gender And Identity1837 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao: Gender and Identity Gender and identity are both unique features that make up a person. Society has expectations on how everyone should act, especially when it comes to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender and gender roles. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Wondrous Life of Oscar WaoÃ¢â¬ , the character Oscar is conflicted with his identity and with his masculinity. The people around him are constantly attacking him for not living up to the standards that society has put into place. Gender and identity are themesRead MoreComparison Of Abrego And Diaz s Life876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI was laughing at how relatable, how real, how honest it all felt. Ã¢â¬Å"This is how you treat your mother? . . . And this is how you treat your daughter?Ã¢â¬ (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, p. 55). This was a phrase that constantly echoed throughout my family home. The parallels were amusing but soon became uncomfortably similar. The transnational family, the machismo, the self hate that lived within children of color, Whiteness, the trauma from living in an impoverished country with a corrupt governmentRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Tempest1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesspends her entire life on her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s island without any possibilities for romance, until Prince Ferdinand crashes there. Miranda immediately falls in love with him and he reciprocates those feelings, ending in their marriage. Another example of a young adult character that struggles with romance is Oscar in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Differently from Miranda, Oscar falls quickly in love with nearly every woman he meets. He has certain expectations for himself as a Dominican man, includingRead MoreThe Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJunot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, set in the late 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, tells a story of Oscar Wao, an overweight Dominican Ã¢â¬Å"ghetto nerdÃ¢â¬ , his mother and rebellious sister who live together in Paterson, New Jersey. Throughout the novel Diaz incorpora tes many different stories about each character that show acts of resistance. One of the most prominent stories of resistance in the novel is through OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s mom; Beli, who is prompted by great tragedy, known as the Trujillo curse, to love atomically
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4283 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Money Market in India Money market is an important segment of the financial market (system) as it provides avenue for equilibrating the short term (ranging from overnight upto an year) demand for and supply of funds. It also plays an important role in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, as it acts as a medium through which the central bank can influence the short term liquidity and interest rates in the financial system. Till the mid 1980s the Indian money markets was characterized by scarcity of instruments, stringent regulations pertaining to participants and interest rates, lack of depth and liquidity. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Money Market India | Finance Dissertations" essay for you Create order Another drawback in the Indian money market during this period was existence of a large number of lenders and only a few chronic borrowers. Infact the basic requirement of a liquid and deep market that the participants should rotate between borrowing and lending activity was missing. However RBI took many measures to deepen and widen the money market in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee to Review the Working of the Monetary System (Chairman: Professor Sukhamoy Chakravarty)  and the Working Group on the Money Market (Chairman: Shri N. Vaghul) . These measures included the deregulation of money markets interest rates, introduction of new money markets instruments such as certificates of deposits (June 1989), commercial paper (Jan 1990) etc. Also the RBI gradually eased the barriers to entry and initiated measure to increase the number of participants in the Money Market. RBI in a ssociation with the public sector banks and financial institution had set up the Discount and Finance House of India Ltd. (DFHI) in April 1988 in order to impart liquidity to the financial instruments. Thus financial innovations in terms of money markets instruments, broadening of participants base and strengthening of institutional infrastructure were undertaking during the 1990s based on the Vaghul Committees framework. Further during the late 1990s the Narasimham committee (1998) recommended rationalization of the money market by ensuring participation of different classes of entities in various segments of money market. RBI has over the years taken many structural measures and instrument-specific measures like transformation of call money market into pure interbank market, bringing down the minimum maturity of the CDs to 7 days etc. to develop the money market in pursuance of the Narasimham committee recommendations. Also a fullfledged liquidity Adjustment Facility was introduced on June 5, 2000 which replaced the traditional refinance suppo rt on fixed terms. The LAF was operationalised with a view to alter short term liquidity conditions as per the market conditions. In wake to strengthen the payment system infrastructure the Clearing Corporation of India Ltd. (CCIL) was formed in 2001. Also the introduction of the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS) in February 2002 and implementation of the Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system in March 2004 further improved the efficiency in the money market. Improve These policy initiatives undertaken over time have led to the growth and sophistication of Indian money market, making it relatively deep, liquid and vibrant. Also the activity in all the segments of the Indian money market has increased significantly, especially during last few years. Currently the major segments of the Indian money market are Call (overnight) and Short-notice (up to fourteen days) Money Market Treasury Bills Market. Repos Market Term Money Market Collateralised borrowing and lending obligation (CBLO) Commercial Paper (CP) Certificates of Deposit (CDs) Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs) Among these, call and short-notice money and Treasury Bills form the most important segments of the Indian money market. Let us discuss each of these in brief: Call/Notice Money market The call money market is one of the most important and active segment of the Indian Money Market. Over the years RBI has taken many measures for development of the call/term money market. During the 1990s measures were taken to widen the participation of the call money market to include primary satellite dealers corporate (through primary dealers) in addition to the existing participants like commercial banks co-operative banks, LIC, UTI, etc. However the Narasimham committee recommended the conversion of the call/notice money market in a pure inter-bank market on prudential considerations and with an objective to improve the monetary transmission mechanism. Thus in accordance with the Narasimham committee recommendations (1998), measures were taken to convert the call market into a pure inter bank market starting in 1999. Simultaneously steps were taken to develop a repo market outside the official window for providing a stable collateralised avenue for deployment of funds by the non-banks following their phased exit from the call money market. Also introduction of instruments such as Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligation further provided the banks and non banks with a funding alternative. Consequently the call money market was transformed into a pure inter bank market in August 2005. Reflecting the conscious decision on the part of the RBI to make the call/notice money market a pure inter bank, the average daily turnover, which stood at around Rs. 351.44 bn in FY02, almost halved to Rs. 141.70 bn in FY04. However it increased in the subsequent years and was Rs.217.25 bn during FY07. The operational efficiency in the call money market was improved with the establishment of the CCIL and operationalisation of NDS. Furthermore the RBI made it mandatory for the all the NDS members to report all the call/notice money market transaction carried out through NDS within 15 minutes of winding up of the transaction. This helped in increasing effici ency, transparency and improve price discovery in the money market. In order to further increase the transparency and facilitate better price discovery CCIL developed a screen based negotiated dealing quote-driven system for all dealings in the call/notice and the term money markets (NDSCALL). This system was made operational on September 18, 2006. Further the RBI has over the years carried out many reform measures such as adoption of Liquidity Adjustment Facilities (LAF) etc. in order to impart stability in the call money market. In the 1990s the call rates were generally stable barring a few episodes of volatility. Tight liquidity condition in the call money market, backed by high levels of statutory pre-emptions and withdrawal of all refinance facilities except the export credit, led to firming up of the call rates during the beginning of FY92. Infact the call rate touched a peak of 35% in May 1992. After that the call rates eased for some period and again firmed up to touc h 35% in November 1995. This was partly a reflection of the turmoil in the foreign exchange market. Inorder to stabilize the market the RBI injected liquidity in the system through repos, increased refinance facilities and provided some respite by reducing the CRR. With RBI sucking out liquidity to ease foreign exchange market pressure the call rates, which had eased to single digit levels, again firmed up to 29% in January 1998. The adoption of the LAF in June 2000 has helped the call rates to ease. The call rate eased significantly to a low of 4.5 percent in September 2004, backed by improved liquidity conditions on account of increased capital inflows. However on account of IMD redemptions the call rates came under some pressure in December 2005. It increased to around 7% during Feb 2007 partly influenced by the tight monetary policy stance by the RBI to curb high inflation. With the initiation of the LAF and subsequent improvement in liquidity management a considerable deg ree of stability has been imparted in the call money market. Since then the volatility in call rates has reduced significantly. According to the RBI the mean rate has almost halved from around 11 per cent during April 1993-March 1996 to about 6 per cent during April 2000-March 2007. Volatility, measured by coefficient of variation (CV) of call rates, also halved from 0.6 to 0.3 over the same period. It is important to note here that the in the pre-reform period the statutory requirements like CRR and SLR and reserve maintenance period have been the main driver of the call rates. However in the recent years the developments in other market segments, mainly the foreign exchange and the government securities market accompanied by the Reserve Banks liquidity management operations have been the major factors influencing the call rates. This signifies increased market integration and improved liquidity management by the Reserve Bank. Term Money Market Term Money Market, which is market for short-term funds of maturity between 15 days to 1 year, is not very well developed in India. Till the late 1980s, the term money market was governed by stringent norms in terms of participants, regulated interest rates etc. However the RBI has taken many measures over the years to develop this market. The administered interest rate system was dismantled in 1989 following the recommendations of vaghul committee. Further in 1993 select financial institutions (IDBI, ICICI, IFCI, IIBI, SIDBI, EXIM Bank, NABARD, IDFC and NHB) were allowed to borrow from the term money market for 3-6 months maturity, however within a fixed limit set for each institution. Also Term money of original maturity between 15 days and 1 year was exempted from the CRR in August 2001. Although many measures were taken by the RBI to develop the term money market, the activity (as reflected in the daily turnover) in this segment of money market continues to remain low. The a verage daily turnover in the term money market has increased moderately from Rs.195 crore in FY02 to Rs.1,012 crore during FY07. The development of the term money market has been impeded by confluence of factors- (i) the inability of participants to build interest rate expectations over the medium term due to which there is a tendency on their part to lock themselves in the short-term; (ii) the distribution of liquidity is also skewed with public sector banks often having surplus funds and foreign banks being in deficit in respect of short-term resources. Since the deficit banks depend heavily on call/notice money, more often, surplus banks exhaust their exposure limits to them; (iii) corporates overwhelming preference for cash credit system rather than loan generally forces banks to deploy a large amount in the call/notice money market rather than in the term money market to meet sudden demand from corporates; (iv) the steady reduction in the minimum maturity period of term d eposits offered by banks; and (v) the tendency on the part of banks to deploy their surplus funds in LAF auctions rather than in the term money market, reflecting risk-averse behaviour. Repos Market Repo is a money market instrument, which enables collateralised short-term borrowing and lending through sale/purchase operations in debt instruments. In this segment, mutual funds and some foreign banks are the major providers of funds, while some foreign banks, private sector banks and primary dealers are the major borrowers. Over the years RBI has taken many measures to reform the Repo market, which was highly regulated both in terms of participants and instruments till the late 1980s. Before April 1988 all government securities and PSU bonds were eligible for repo transactions. However with the alarmingly high growth in repos RBI became cautious and prohibited the participation of non-banks in the repo market. RBI permitted only interbank repos in all government securities between April 1988 and mid-June 1992 in order to avoid any undesirable developments on account of the large scale misuse of repos. The Janakiraman Committee, set up following the securities market irregula rities of 1992, reported that despite of being prohibited virtually all wholesale participants of the money and not only banks widely used the repos. Also many other irregularities were in the repo markets were bought to the forefront, following which the repos were prohibited in all the securities barring the treasury bills. However in wake to revive the repo market and noting the usefulness of repos in development of money market, RBI gradually bought all Central Government dated securities, Treasury Bills and State Government securities under the purview of repo market. Furthermore, with the view to broaden the repo market PSU bonds and private corporate securities have been made eligible for repos in 1997-98. Further RBI introduced the delivery versus payment system during FY96, with an aim to facilitate the repo transactions and increase transparency in the repo market. Nonbank entities which maintained subsidiary general ledger (SGL) account were permitted to participate in the repo market. Since March 2003, the non-bank financial companies, mutual funds, housing finance companies and insurance companies not having SGL account were permitted to transact in the repo market through their gilt accounts maintained with the custodian. With the increase in use of repos as money market instrument the comprehensive uniform accounting guidelines as well as documentation policy were issued by the RBI in March 2003. In addition to this the DvP III mode of settlement in government securities (which involves settlement of securities and funds on a net basis) was operationalised in April 2004. This helped the introduction of rollover of repo transactions in government securities and offered greater flexibility to participants in managing their collaterals. The Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF), that was introduced from June 5, 2000, has also helped in development of the repo market. Further the gradual phasing out of nonbanks (August 2005) from the call money market, has provided further impetus to the repo market. This is evident from the sharp increase in the average daily turnover of repo transactions (other than the Reserve Bank) from Rs.11,311 crore during April 2001 to Rs. 42,252 crore in June 2006. Treasury Bills Market T-Bills are issued by the RBI on behalf of the Government of India and thus are actually a class of Government Securities. Presently T-Bills are issued in maturity periods of 91 days, 182 days and 364 days through an auction based system and form one of the most active segments of the Indian money market. However prior to the initiation of reforms, only the 91-day Treasury bills were sold through fixed coupon or tap system. Also ad hoc treasury bills were issued by the government in order to meet the temporary mismatch in revenue and expenditure. Although these were meant for temporary purpose they became attractive source of meeting the central government resource requirement as they were available at an interest rate pegged at 4.6% per annum since 1974. However due to administered nature of interest rate the 91-day treasury bills could not emerge as useful instruments in the money market. But with initiation of the reform measures in the late 1980s T-bills market has emerge d as an important segment of the money market. The reform process in the t-bills market was initiated in November 1986 with the introduction of 182 days treasury bills. The formation of DFHI also helped in emergence of treasury bills market as important segment of the money market. Further impetus was provided to the development of the treasury bills market by the phasing out of the tap treasury bills and introduction of auctioning system in the 91-treasury. Another important reform in the treasury bills market was the abolition of the ad hoc treasury bills in April 1997. Further the introduction of 14-day intermediate treasury bills helped in improving the cash management of the government. Thus, Treasury bills of different tenors were introduced to consolidate the market for imparting liquidity, while yields were made market determined through auctions so that they could be used as benchmark for other short-term market instruments. Treasury Bills market has received special attention of RBI over the years as it is at the heart of the money market development. The amounts assigned for auctions are announced in advance since April 1998. Also the payments dates are synchronized on the following Friday after the auctions inorder to provide fungible stock of varying maturities and to activate the secondary market in Treasury Bills. The primary dealers provide their bid daily and offer discount rates so that the investors are able to acquire treasury bills even in between the auctions. Type of T-bills Introduced Discontinued 91 days Ad-hoc T-Bill Mid 1950s April, 1997 91 days T-Bill on Tap Mid 1950s March, 1997 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction November,1986 April, 1992 14 days T-Bill on weekly auction April, 1997 May, 2001 364 days T-Bill on fortnightly auction April, 1992 91 days T-Bill on weekly auction January,1993 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction Re-introduced in June, 1999 May, 2001 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction Re-introduced in April, 2005 The primary dealers provide their bid daily and offer discount rates so that the investors are able to acquire treasury bills even in between the auctions. Commercial Paper (CP): Commercial paper was introduced in India in January 1990, in accordance with the recommendations of the vaghul committee with an aim to provide additional avenues to the corporate to source short term funds. Commercial Paper (CP) is issued in the form of a promissory note sold directly by the issuers to investors, or else placed by the borrowers through agents such as merchant banks and security houses. Since CP is freely transferable, and highly liquid it provides the banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and others an attractive avenue to park their short term funds. Over the years RBI has gradually relaxed the norms relating to eligibility, maturity period etc. for issuing CPs. Initially, corporates were allowed to issue CP with a maturity between 3 to 6 months from the date of issue. However the minimum tenor of the CP was reduced in phased manner. Currently the minimum tenor of the CP is seven days (effective October 2004). Also the minimum amount to be investe d by a single investor, which was Rs.1 crore at time of introduction of CP, has been gradually brought down to 5 lakhs. This norm was gradually relaxed so as to align the CPs with other money market instruments. These measures helped in the increasing activity in this segment of the money market. Initially the limit of CP issuance was carved out of the maximum permissible bank finance (MPBF) limit and consequently only to its cash credit part. However reducing proportion of cash credit in the MPBF was hindering the development of the CP market and hence issuance of CP was delinked from the cash credit limit in October 1997. Further with a view to enable issuers of the service sector to meet their needs of short-term working capital, CP was transformed into a stand alone product. Initially, the individuals, banks, companies, other corporate bodies registered or incorporated in India and unincorporated bodies were allowed to issue and held the CP. Further issuance of the CP to n on-residents on a non-repatriation basis was allowed however these CPs were non transferable. Also the FIIs were permitted to invest in the CPs since October 2000, but within the limit set by SEBI. Further to improve the efficiency, rationalize standardize the various aspects of processing and reduce the transaction cost many measures such as dematerialization of CPs (effective June 30, 2001) were undertaken by the RBI. It issued draft guidelines on securitisation of standard assets on April 4, 2005, with an aim to further deepen the market. Consequently the issuing and Paying agents were required to report the issuance of the CP on NDS platform commencing from April 16, 2005. Over the years the major issuers of CP have been the leasing and finance companies. Discount rates on CPs have firmed up in line with the increases in policy rates during 2005-06 and 2006-07. It is advantageous for the corporate to raise funds through CPs during times of ample liquidity as the effective discount rates on CP tends to be lower than the banks lending rates. Also it is relatively profitable for banks to park their funds in the CPs during times of high liquidity as the interbank call rates tend to be lower than the CP rates. Thus the activity in the CP market reflects the liquidity condition in the money market. The average outstanding amount of CPs reduced from Rs. 22.80 bn during FY94 to Rs. 4.42 bn in FY96 on account of tight liquidity conditions in the money market. However the outstanding amount of CPs has increased in the recent years. It was Rs. 213.14 bn during FY07. However the secondary market for CPs continues to remain subdued as the investors prefer to hold the instrument till maturity as it gives them a higher risk adjusted return compared to other instruments in the money market. The secondary market of CPs is more profitable for the Mutual funds as they are charged higher stamp duty for issuing a CP as compared to the banks. Certificates of Deposits (CD) CD were introduced in the Indian money market in June 1989, with an view to widen the range of instruments in the money market and provide additional avenue and greater flexibility to the investors to park their short term surplus funds. During the pre reform period the CDs were governed by a number of regulations in terms of maturity, issuance amounts, maturity etc. However many guidelines pertaining to the CDs have been relaxed in the post reform period. The limit on issuance of the CD, which was earlier linked to the average fortnightly outstanding aggregate deposit, was abolished effective October 16, 1993. This was done with a view to enabling it as a market determined instrument. In order to align the CDs with other money market instruments the minimum maturity of the CDs has been reduced gradually to 7 days (April 2005). The minimum size of issuance was reduced from Rs 1 crore in 1989 to Rs. 1 lakh in June 2002. Also to provide flexibility and depth to the secondary marke t activity the restrictions pertaining to the minimum period for transferability were withdrawn over a period of time. With a view to improve transparency and promote secondary market activity the banks were instructed to issue CDs to the financial institutions only in dematerialized form, effective June 30, 2002. Since October 2002 the banks were allowed to issue floating rate CDs as a coupon bearing instrument in order to promote flexible pricing. The reduction in stamp duty on CDs, effective March 1, 2004 and withdrawal of the facility of premature closure of deposits in respect of CDs were other factors that boosted activity in the market, providing greater opportunity for secondary market trading. The activity in the CDs market is also depended on the liquidity conditions in the market as the CPs. Unlike the CPs the issuance of CDs increase in the time of tight liquidity conditions as the banks resort to issuance of CDs, often at premium, to meet their liquidity gap. For instance, the outstanding amount of CDs declined to Rs.949 crore during FY02 as compared to 1,199 crore, partly due to easy liquidity conditions on account of large capital inflows. However the average outstanding amount of CDs increased gradually during the subsequent periods. The average outstanding amount of CDs had increased to Rs.64,814 crore during FY07 as banks resorted to issuance of CDs in order to support the robust credit demand. The interest rates on CDs which had softened in the recent years in line with other money market instruments experienced some hardening during FY07. However banks offer higher interest rates on CDs as compared to other instruments and hence it is profitable for the subscriber to hold the CDs till maturity. This infact is one of the reasons for subdued secondary market for the CDs. Collateralised Borrowing and lending obligation: The CCIL operationalised CBLO as a money market instrument on Jan 20, 2003 with an aim to provide an alternative avenue to the market participants, especially those who were phased out of the call money market, to manage their short term liquidity. This innovative product developed by the CCIL facilitates anonymous order matching system for efficient price discovery. High transparency and real time basis of deals in the CBLO have assisted in enhancing efficiency of the money market. With the conversion of the call money market in a pure interbank market since August 2005 and setting of prudential limits on lending and borrowing by banks and PDs in the call money market, the activity has shifted to CBLO segment as can be seen in the below chart. The average daily turnover in the CBLO segment has registered an increase from Rs.515 crore in FY04 to Rs.32,390 crore during FY07. However the increase in turnover can be partly attributed to the increase in number of participants from 3 0 in July 2003 to 153 in March 2007. It is important to note here that the composition of market participants has also changed over the years. The mutual funds and insurance companies have emerged as the major lenders while the nationalized banks, PDs and non-financial companies as major borrowers during FY07. As borrowings in the CBLO segment are fully collateralised, the rates in this segment are expected to be comparable with the repo rates. The movements in the daily average rates in the overnight call, the repo and the CBLO markets for the period from January 2003 to March 2007 show that CBLO rates moved between the call and the repo rates up to November 2003 due to a limited number of participants. From November 2003, the CBLO rates have aligned with the repo rates on account of increase in the number of participants. Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs) With an aim of bringing the money market within the reach of individual investors the MMMF were introduced in India in April 1991. However a detailed scheme of MMMFs was declared by the RBI in April 1992, thereby allowing the schedule commercial banks and public financial institutions to set up MMMFs, subject to some terms and conditions. However to provide flexibility, liquidity and depth to the market these restrictions were relaxed over a period of time. For example the minimum lock in period for the units of MMMFs was brought down from 30 days to 15 days in May 1998. MMMFs were permitted to offer cheque writing facility in a tie-up with banks in 1999-2000 in order to provide added liquidity to unit holders. MMMFs, which were under the purview of RBI, were bought under SEBIs regulations Since March 7, 2000. Also it is important to note that now banks are permitted to set up MMMFs only in form of trust as a separate entity. Also the MMMFs were permitted to invest in rated corp orate bonds and debentures with a residual maturity of one year.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Influence of interest groups on the American legislature We elect politicians on the basis on the issues by which they stand, and these issues are either held up or weakened by the numerous interest groups that exist today. Interest groups target both major and minor issues, using all of their resources to sponsor or overpower the groups concern. Interest groups are composed of a limited range of the body of voters who have a great stake in the issues their group support. They make evident the issues their group supports. Their resources are used in an attempt to make their issue public policy. Interest groups are persistent; they do not give up until they succeed. They lobby congress, take legal action, and attempt toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The organization is further restricted in its advocacy by the broad diversity of viewpoints it represents. One of the primary ways the AARP influences policy is through their influence on voters. They do this in the form of election forums and the distribution of voter guides . The AARP continuously holds election forums to discuss and inform voters on candidates stances on the issues that affect their members. They utilize these election forums to inform their members and enable them to make informed decisions at the polls. A forum is not a debate and does not create any dissention between members but increases the members loyalty through unified ideas. Another tool used by the AARP to inform its members and potential supporters is the distribution of voter guides and pro-AARP propaganda. Voter guides allow them to give a detailed account of each politicians issues and how they affect the seniors.16 The information contained in voter guides enable members to fully understand where each candidate is coming from and what he/she plans to accomplish while in office. Through mass distribution of voter guides, the AARP is able to spread their influence throughout the nation. Further distribution of articles and advertisements in journals, allow th e AARP to increase their influence upon the voters of America. The AARP has a contract with America Online offering their members aShow MoreRelated The Effects of Interest Groups on Politics Essay1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInfluence of interest groups on the American legislature nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;We elect politicians on the basis on the issues by which they stand, and these issues are either held up or weakened by the numerous interest groups that exist today. Interest groups target both major and minor issues, using all of their resources to sponsor or overpower the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ concern. 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Essay cover sheet Essay Title: What does the study of brain injury and disease tell us about normal brain functioning? Word count (Excluding title and references section): 829 What does the study of brain injury and disease tell us about normal brain functioning? To understand atypical brain function, it is important to distinguish the expectations for a typical brain function. It is true that many diseases or injuries result in impairments in cognition; as different areas of the brain is designed to control specific cognition and processes. For example the hemispheres are known to control different functions such as language, spatial judgements, reasoning and abstract notions (Martin, 2003). We will write a custom essay sample on Brain Damage or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whilst, the frontal lobe is famous for processing memory, attention, personality, and behaviour (Martin, 2003). Parietal lobe tends to control spatial and sensory information; whereas occipital lobe processes visual stimulus. Language, retrieval of memory and behaviour is administrated through temporal lobe (Martin, 2003). Finally, the limbic system tends to control emotion as well as short term memory (Martin, 2003). Brain damage is the degeneration or abnormal growth of brain cells, which can be the result of outer (injury) or inner (disease) influences. Therefore, in cases of brain disease there are biological and psychological impairment that causes abnormality in the brain such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, Dementia, Amnesia and Aphasia; which some may be genetically inherited. Brain disease such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s help us to understand the processes of the central executive function, which assists in producing controlled and flexible responses (Groome, 2006). In AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease (AD), this process is replaced by automatic and stereotyped responses; thus, it results in a dysexecutive syndrome (Groome, 2006; Baddely Wilson, 1988). Conditions such as AD, symptoms like amnesia and dementia are known to involve damage to frontal lobes (Groome, 2006); therefore, there are impairments in abstract and conceptual thinking, attention, behaviour and memory. For example, lesions to frontal lobes result in difficulty in retrieving contextual information (Parkin, Walter Hunkin. 1995); thus, when presented with series of items, the frontal lobe patients are likely to remember the item shortly after, however, are not able to specify the order in which they were presented in (Swain, Polkey, Bullock Morris. , 1998). Additionally, patient H. M had part of his medial temporal lobes removed due to his epilepsy; however most of his hippocampus were also removed to reduce seizures (Groome, 2006). Although his condition improved, he developed amnesi a, which affected his short term memory (Groome, 2006). This meant he was no longer able to form new memories due to the lesion made to his hippocampus. Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that results in several cognition impairments such as: deficit in memory and learning, poor abstract thinking and problem solving, difficulty in sustaining attention. Studies suggest that such patients are likely to suffer from dysfunction in areas such as : frontal lobe, temporal lobe, left or right hemisphere and basal ganglia (Blanchard Neale, 1994). Heinrichs Zakzanis (1998) illustrated how schizophrenic patients tend to have impaired verbal memory. Furthermore, injuries or lesions to frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex can result in language deficiencies, such as Wernicke and BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s aphasia (Groome, 2006). For example, patient Phineas Gage suffered an injury to the BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s area (damage to frontal lobe), showed inability to produce language, as there was no sentence structure and the language was just string of disjointed words (Fleischman, 2002; Groome, 2006). Gage also showed emotional inbalance, where he was described to have acted out of character and was more aggressive, which was the result of damage to amygdale (Fleischman, 2002; Groome, 2006). Whilst, WernickeÃ¢â¬â¢s aphasia (damage to temporal lobe) results in meaningless production of language; the patient is able to produce sentences but it does not convey information (Groome, 2006). Moreover, studies on blindsight suggest that patients such as DB have no conscious experience of perceived surroundings, however they manage to use the visual information at some other level to guide them through the surrounding world (Groome, 2006). It is believed that this neglect is the result of damage to the contralateral hemisphere. For example patients who have lesions to the right hemisphere have left spatial neglect, thus will fail to notice the left side of space (Groome, 2006). Such studies, highlight that spatial neglect is not a unitary disorder but a cohort of deficits. Thus, it allows us to distinguish between conscious experiences and the ability to respond appropriately to stimulus (Groome, 2006). The brain is a major organ that executes functions and vital processes essential to human activity; for example thinking, memory, language and emotions. The use of brain injuries and diseases, enables us to identify better models to comprehend cognition; as these areas will create a natural lesion in the processing mechanism. Thus, it identifies specific elements that play a major role in cognition. The mentioned studies show specific cognitions can be used to process information in a particular way. To ensure that specific cognitive model is processing properly, it is important to look at the neural activity of that region. Lack of activity in the interested area shows impairment in the model and that region. Therefore, by studying that specific area further, we can highlight its activity and information processing. This will allow us to understand normal functioning of the brain further. However, it is important to note that these theories might not be fully supported. For example, not much is known about the central executive system; thus, the vagueness only allows to corroborate processes that are not fully understood. Therefore it is vital to critically analyse theories before applying them. References Baddeley, AD. Kopelman, MD. , and Wilson, BA. (2004). The Essential Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians. John Wiley Sons, Ltd Blanchard, J. J. Neale, J. M. (1994) The neuropsychological signature of schizophrenia: generalized or differential deficit? American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 40Ã¢â¬â48. Fleischman, J. (2002). Phineas Gage: A gruesome but true story about brain science. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Groome, D. (2006). An introduction to cognitive psychology. Hove: Eng land. Heinrichs, R. W. Zakzanis, K. K. 1998) Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426Ã¢â¬â445. Martin, G. N. (2003). Essential biological psychology. London: Arnold. Parkin, AJ. , Walter, BM. , and Hunkin, MM. (1995). Relationships between normal aging frontal lobe function, and memory for temporal spatial information. Neuropsychology, 9, 304-312. Swain, SA. , Polkey, CE. , Bullock, P. Morris, RB. (1998). Recognition memory and memory for order in script-based stories following frontal lobe excisions. Cortex. 34, 25-45. How to cite Brain Damage, Papers
Question: Discuss about the Customer Orientation and Performance. Answer: Introduction: Apple Inc. is an American corporation which was found in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steven Wozniak. The company deals in the products like I pad, iPhone, I cloud, Apple TV, etc. (Lazonick, Mazzucato Tulum, 2013). Apple Inc. is a product orientation company. It is because it produces innovative products with quality to the customers which helps it in targeting maximum consumers. The company develop its products and make them attractive for the customers. The products of the company are produced by keeping in mind that they must edge over the products of the competitors. The products are made with unique and attractive features which capture the attention of the customers. The employees of the company are highly talented and skilled which focus on delivering new to the customers every time. They use their strengths and capabilities which produces high end quality products as a result (Maurya, et. al., 2015). The company tries to match up the expectations and needs of the customers with the help of its unique and technologically upgraded products. Apple has come up with its two new models recently in IPhone which are IPhone 8 and 10. The company is strongly oriented towards the product and strives for best position in the industry by serving the customers and making them satisfied through its products. The company also adopt differentiation and cost leadership strategies in order to improve its profits on the sale of its products (Maurya, et. al., 2015). This shows that the company is strongly product oriented. References Lazonick, W., Mazzucato, M., Tulum, . (2013, December). Apple's changing business model: What should the world's richest company do with all those profits?. InAccounting Forum(Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 249-267). Elsevier. Maurya, U. K., Mishra, P., Anand, S., Kumar, N. (2015). Corporate identity, customer orientation and performance of SMEs: Exploring the linkages.IIMB Management Review,27(3), 159-174.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Tourist Management Strategy. Answer: Introduction The strategic plans which are prepared considering different destinations are called Destination Management Plans. The Planning Model of Destination Management Plan is developed by Tourism of Queensland. They provide a process by the help of which the management is able to develop a strategic plan for a particular destination. Tourism management strategy includes the expression of the strategic directions and priorities which are identified by the stakeholders of that particular organization for planning, marketing, management and development of a exacting region. If the tourism management team does not solve the challenges regarding that particular destination then they are unable to make an effective strategic plan. These challenges are also cause some more issues or challenges in the future. This research paper has evaluates the issues and the experiences of the visitors at Queensland science Centre. There are several issues regarding the proper management of the sites and the man agement of the visitors. The management team should take more care to maintain the rules and regulations within the Science Centre. By the help of proper management techniques they can easily maintain the wellness of that particular destination or site and is able to satisfy their visitors with great pleasure. The managers of that particular site make sure that the region is always remaining safe for each and every visitors and the place should be well-maintained (Kerlinger et al., 2013). The management should always try to provide a better customer service to their visitors, as this will help in enhancing the effectiveness of the concerned place. Description about the site The Queensland Science Centre is the main Science Centre within the state of Queensland, Australia. Recently, it has operated four numbers of separate campuses at Townsville, Toowoomba, Ipswich and South Brisbane. The founder of this Queensland Science Centre is Queensland Philosophical Society (Darragh Fensham, 2013). It was founded in the year of 1862 on the date 20th January. The Queensland Science Centre is a home of science and experiments where anybody came to know about the stories of Queenslands state, entire Australia and also about some other nearby regions of Australia. The Science Centre is located at the South Bank by attaching along with the Queensland Science Centre (Appeltans et al., 2012). It is an incredible and mind-blowing destination for each and every people who want to experience science and to feel it through their work and activities. In this Queensland Science Centre, the management has allowed their visitors to experience and feel the magic of science. The Queensland Science Centre is a perfect place where the kids, students and many other people are getting introduced to science in an interactive and relaxed environment (Sobbe et al., 2013). Generally, the Science Centre is a better place for the older children; however, this science center is also impresses the little kids by the help of some cool experiments. The visitors have spends a lot of their times only by playing the science games and experimenting the magical displays. The Queensland Science Centre is also consists of State Library, Queensland modern art gallery, Queensland art gallery and Queensland Arts center where the visitors can perform. In this Science Centre, the visitors have come to gather knowledge about the history of Queensland and many stories related to the inhabitants of Queensland and their cultures in past and present times. The Queensland Science Centre has been also held several exhibitions of different science show, a variety of interesting experiments and traveling shows which describe Australia, Queensland, and other places through all over the world. This Science Centre is also facilitating their visitors by giving knowledge about the geosciences, cultural history, and biodiversity. After visiting the Queensland Science Centre, the kids and the children are able to reveal the application and need of need of science in the daily life of a human being (Sigala, 2015). This Science Centre is remaining open every day from 9.30am to 5.00pm. on ANZAC Day it open from 1.30pm. The Queensland Science Centre has remain closed on Christmas Day, Good Friday and Boxing Day. This science Centre is an awesome place for every kid from all ages and for the adults also. The kids are enjoyed their every moment within this Science Centre. They can spend half of their day in this Science Centre and enjoy a lot. To enjoy the facility of entry within this Science Centre, the management has launches an innovative idea. They have implement a membership card and named it My Science Centre Member. By the help of this card, the visitor is able to enjoy the entry into the Queensland Science Centre for 1 Year at a price of less than three visiting fees. The visitors who have this membership card are able to enjoy exclusive discounts at the time of exhibitions and they also enjoy discounted entry to any Science Centre which belongs to the same network of Queensland Science Centre. Management issues or problems at the Queensland Science Centre The Queensland Science Centre is a fantastic place for their visitors to spend a lot of times there and for enjoying the cool experiments of science. However, the management of this Science Centre has faces several challenges for maintaining proper rules and regulations within the Science Centre. The management team is not able to provide good customer service to their visitors. They should provide more guide who help the visitors to understand the experiments and told the stories behind each and every experiments and monument. It is found that the parents are also playing those experiments or the play materials along with their kids which are prepared only for kids and also mentioned that it is not for the adults (Liu et al., 2016). For this reason, some of the times it is found that the children do not get the chance to play and enjoy those items. The soft approaches of the signs have become hard to approach. The visitors have not taken any care about the soft signs. That is why sometimes the discipline within the Science Centre is getting hampered. There is a huge model of dinosaurs outside the main block of the Queensland Science Centre. As per the rules and regulation of the management of the Science Centre, nobody should allow climbing that huge dinosaur. However, the visitors should not follow this instruction and still climb upon it and click pictures. Some it may cause damages to that particular property of Science Centre. Inside Science Centre, the management team did not mention the directions in a proper way. It becomes very difficult for the visitors to find the floors and stairs. As the Science Centre area is very large so it creates some troubles to the visitors to understand the map and inner way of the Science Centre (Becerra et al., 2013). According to the instructions, rules, and regulations, no one should be allowed to enter within the science with food materials and drinks. However, there is no such security that checks the bags. For this reason, the visitors still bring food materials and drinks along with them into the inside of the Science Centre. That is why some of the times the place gets untidy and unhygienic. This may cause damages of the private property of the Science Centre. No surveillance or observation is provided by the management at those places where it is necessary such as near the skeleton of dinosaurs, some electrical experimental equipment, etc. For this reason, some of the time vandalism takes place because when the visitors touch the heritage collections then it may get damage and those collections are absolutely unique so it becomes a great loss for the management. The place has become more crowded during the festive season. As the tourists are came to visit this Science Centre throughout the year from different places so continuous crowding takes place. For this reason, the management should implement some innovative systems by the help of which are able to control the crowd and help every visitor to visit their Science Centre in a proper manner by maintaining discipline (Coghlan, 2012). On the displaying board, there are very cognitive details are given for the kids which become a little bit difficult for the kids to understand the experim ents. The management of the Science Centre has always use a local group of people to promote and also show respect towards the native rights which are written on the screens of the computers. The management team of the Queensland Science Centre has also faces huge problems and great challenges to create a culture within the visitors as they should maintain the instructions and the rules and regulations of the Science Centre. The management has been also takes care of the safety of the kids at the time of playing the funny items or performing the experiments. The management has faced several challenges at the time of maintaining discipline inside the science Science Centre. For this reason, some of the time it is found that the visitors and the kids are not able to enjoy the magical experiments and the playing items as much they want. Due to this issues or problems, the visitors has been also face several issues regarding that place and also unable to enjoy a lot. The management team should overcome these problems that it does not create any issue in future. Positivitys from the site There are some of the positive aspects that can be drawn from the site such as a vast amount of information can be collected in order to enhance the daily activities of people, use of the latest innovative technologies can be done. Moreover, the information regarding the history of Queensland of Australia can be collected and this will help in increasing the knowledge of the people. Furthermore, the people can get to know more about the application of different aspects of science in daily life. Current management practices at the Queensland Science Centre To overcome the issues or problems the management teams of the Queensland Science Centre implements several practices recently. First of all, they appoint some candidates who have the ability to understand the working situation and able to give some innovative ideas to develop the plans which are taken to improve the facilities for the visitors within the building of the Queensland Science Centre. They also appoint a health and safety officer who will always supervise the safety factors of the visitors. They implement several security guards who will check and supervise that the visitors should follow the norms and instructions which are declared by the management of the Queensland Science Centre. They also maintain the discipline inside the building of the Science Centre. The management is able to overcome their issues and problems by incorporating innovation into their service delivery strategies. To maintain the famousness of this Science Centre they should develop their in-house exhibitions and should implement some new ideas, new experiments, and new mind games which attract their visitors more than before (Dwyer et al., 2012). Recently, the management of the Queensland Science Centre or the Queensland Science Centre appoints some guide who will explain the history of the Queensland and Australia and their inhabitants in past in detail in front of the visitors. This will help the visitors to understand the reason behind the every monument. They also explain the cool experiments in front of the kids and help them to feel the magic of science. They also aware those kids who came to visit the Science Centre about the necessity of the science and the application of science in the daily life of a human being (Mason, 2015). The management also started to held many learning programs and invite the students from different schools to share knowledge about the different application of science and to show some more interesting experiments. Generally, the Science Cent re is a better place for the older children; however, this Science Centre also impresses the little kids by the help of some cool experiments. The visitors spends a lot of their times only by playing different types of mind games and experimenting the magical displays. Currently, the management team of the Queensland Science Centre improves their screen content and makes it very easy and understandable that the kids can easily read it and understand the meaning and results of the experiments. Currently, the management also appoints a custodian who will maintain and take care of the cultural and natural heritage along with the respected researchers and unique collection. The management team also set CCTV cameras through all over the building of the Queensland science Centre and Queensland Science Centre to maintain a tough security and strong discipline within the building. To overcome the issues or the problems the management of the Queensland Science Centre or the Queensland Scienc e Centre implements those practices into their service process to satisfy their visitors and to maintain a proper discipline inside the building. By incorporating these practices, the management of the Queensland Science Centre is also able to take care of their heritage properly without causing any harm to it. Recommendation for sustainable management However, the Queensland Science Centre and the Science Centre is an incredible, fantastic and mind-blowing place for every visitor. People from every age love to spend a lot of their times in this Science Centre and Science Centre. In the Queensland Science Centre the visitors enjoying many cool experiments of science and several mind games. However, the management of this Science Centre faces several challenges for maintaining proper rules and regulations within the Science Centre. To overcome these issues or problems and to maintain a sustainable management it is recommended that the management should provide a better customer service to their visitors. The management should maintain the discipline and stop the adults and the parents to play with the playing items which are only for the kids. The management should aware the visitors before entering the building to take care of the soft signs and do not cause any harm. If any types of harm are caused by any visitors then they should penalize (Ziegler et al., 2012). The management should appoint tight security to every corner of the building. They should restrict the visitors to climb up on the model of the dinosaurs outside the building. The management should allow the visitors to click pictures by maintaining a distance from every monument. The management should mention a proper direction within the Science Centre which helps the visitors to understand the floors and stairs and way inside the Science Centre and Science Centre. The management should appoint a male and a female security person at the main entrance who at first check the bags and make sure that the visitors should not carry any foods and drinks inside the Science Centre then allow the visitors to enter the building. The management should fix proper surveillance in the important areas such as within the Science Centre where the heritage items or the skeleton of a dinosaur has been kept. The security person should stop the visitors to touch them a nd maintain a safe distance from those monuments. The management should implement an innovative system to manage the crowd and maintain proper discipline during the festive season. The management should write easy and simple words on the boards that the kids should able to understand the meaning easily. The management should aware the visitors about the local community and also tell them to show respect to all those native rights which are written on the computer screens (Paraskevas et al., 2013). Sustainable management is of great need as it will help in enhancing the effectiveness of the entire Science Museum. There exist crucial need for the development of the big exhibitions and the effective plan for the management of the entire science museum and this need to be done by the management team. The management team of the Queensland Science Centre should improve their screen content and makes it very easy and understandable that the kids can easily read it and understand the meaning and results of the experiments. The management has also fixes CCTV cameras within the every corner of the building. By the help of these cameras, they are able to supervise the entire building from a single control room. The management should appoint a custodian who will maintain and take care of the cultural and natural heritage along with the respected researchers and unique collection. The management should always provide a guide with each respective experiment who will guide and help the visit ors to enjoy and understand the experiments. Conclusion Tourism management strategy is a process by the help of which anybody is able to make strategic plans which are made for any destinations. By the help of this tourism management strategy, any person is able to determine the challenges or problems which take place within any particular place. By the help of this strategy, the management team of that particular place is always trying to overcome those issues and problems and make a better place for the visitors. By the help of this tourism management strategy, the management is also able to avoid these problems in future. In this case study, the scholars have been given a clear idea about the tourism management strategy of the Queensland Science Centre. It is an incredible, fantastic and mind-blowing place for every visitor. People from every age love to spend a lot of their times in this Science Centre and Science Centre. In the Queensland Science Centre the visitors are enjoying many cool experiments of science and several mind games . However, the management of this Science Centre is also faces many challenges. The research scholars have also give a detail explanation about the management issues or problems which are faced by the management team of the Queensland Science Centre. They have also described the management practices which are implementing the management of the Queensland Science Centre to overcome those issues or problems. Reference Appeltans, W., Ahyong, S. 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